Iran Russia Agreement
Since the outbreak of the Syrian civil war in 2011, Iran and Russia have become the Syrian government`s main allies in the conflict and provide openly armed support. Meanwhile, Russia`s relations with the West have been severed due to the Ukraine crisis, the poisoning of Skripal in 2018 in the UK and alleged Russian interference in Western politics, leading the US and Europe to retaliate with sanctions against Russia. As a result, Russia has shown a willingness to ally militarily with Iran. Following the JCPOA agreement, President Vladimir Putin lifted the ban in 2015 and the agreement on the S-300 missile defense system for Iran was revived.  Delivery was completed in November 2016 and was to be followed by a $10 billion agreement including helicopters, aircraft and artillery systems.  The agreement is currently in the “negotiation phase” and is expected to be submitted to the Iranian parliament for approval in the coming weeks. In 1921, Britain and the new Bolshevik government reached an agreement that annulled the partition of Iran in 1907. The Bolsheviks returned the entire territory to Iran and Iran again secured the rights to sail on the Caspian Sea. This agreement to evacuate Iran was concluded in the Russo-Persian Friendship Treaty (1921), but the recapture of Iranian territory did not protect the Qajar dynasty from a sudden coup.  Discussions on renewing a long-term agreement with Russia follow the 25-year comprehensive cooperation agreement between Iran and China, which has made headlines in recent weeks.
Meanwhile, Iran has found partners ready in the East. Tehran, Moscow and Beijing oppose U.S. military and interventionist policies in the Middle East and try to eliminate the supremacy of the U.S. dollar that is emerging over the global economy. While it is not clear whether the three capitals have reached a consensus on a trilateral alliance, they are considering taking serious steps in this direction. Three capitals participated in a four-day joint military exercise in the Indian Ocean and Gulf of Oman in 2019. In July, Iranian Foreign Minister Javad Zarif visited Moscow to renew a 20-year cooperation agreement with Russia. In 2016, China agreed to raise the level of bilateral trade between China and Iran to $600 billion within 10 years, when this goal will now be almost impossible to achieve.
A comprehensive strategic agreement is being negotiated. In short, the coercive policy of the United States towards Iran, Russia and China will remain the main obstacle to the trilateral strategic alliance. However, the fate of such a strategic agreement will be an important consideration in future international relations. Iran has the world`s second largest natural gas reserve and fourth largest oil reserve, which position it as an important weight in the strategic calculations that the Eurasian powers make in their foreign policy vis-à-vis the Middle East.